Changes in levothyroxine pharmacokinetics following bariatric surgery in obese hypothyroid patients
Aim: Levothyroxine (L-T4) requirements in obese hypothyroid patients receiving L-T4 therapy decrease following bariatric surgery. L-T4 absorption is also thought to decrease after surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate L-T4 requirements in hypothyroidism cases before and after weight loss through bariatric surgery.
Methods: Seventy-six cases of hypothyroidism receiving L-T4 replacement therapy and with a body mass index over 40 kg/m2 were included in the study. Patients losing at least 10% of basal body weight following bariatric surgery were assessed in terms of thyroid hormone levels and L-T4 requirements over follow-up of at least one year. The L-T4 requirements of patients in whom euthyroidism was achieved were compared in terms of bariatric surgery procedures and hypothyroidism etiology.
Results: Seventy-six patients (56 women, 20 men) with a mean age of 38 years (18-51) were included in the study. Mean weight before bariatric surgery was 121.6 ± 6.8 kg, and mean body mass index was 49.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2. Euthyroidism was confirmed at pre- and post-bariatric surgery evaluation. No statistically significant postoperative changes were determined in thyroid-stimulating hormone or free thyroxine-3 and -4 (p > 0.05). A statistically insignificant decrease was observed in L-T4 dosages after surgery in cases of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (p = 0.064). A statistically significant decrease was determined in L-T4 dosages in cases of non-Hashimoto hypothyroidism (p = 0.001). L-T4 requirements decreased in both surgical procedures (p = 0.001)
Conclusion: Postoperative L-T4 requirements decrease with weight loss. In addition, no decrease appeared to occur in L-T4 absorption following the surgical procedures in this study.
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