EXPERIMENTAL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr <p>Experimental Biomedical Research is focused on priority novel research results covering a wide range of experimental and clinical fields in the biomedical sciences</p> Prof. Dr. Hayrettin Ozturk en-US EXPERIMENTAL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 2618-6454 <p><strong>Copyright©2018 Experimental Biomedical Research.&nbsp;All Rights Reserved</strong></p> Effects of the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor tadalafil on nociception, morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/17 <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Tadalafil is a potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of&nbsp;phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enzyme breakdowning cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tadalafil on nociception, morphine analgesia and tolerance.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> In this study, 54 Wistar Albino (230-250 g) male rats were used. First of all, four different doses (2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg) were used to determine the optimum effective dose of tadalafil on nociception. Optimum activity was found at 8 mg/kg and animals were divided into six groups: Saline (S), 8mg/kg tadalafil, 5mg/kg morphine (M), M+ tadalafil, morphine tolerance (MT) and MT+ tadalafil. Saline was given to the control group, tadalafil intraperitoneally and morphine subcutaneously administered at the indicated doses. To develop tolerance to morphine, 10mg/kg morphine was injected daily in the morning and evening for five days and tolerance was evaluated with single dose of morphine on sixth days. The resulting analgesic effect was measured with hot plate and tail flick analgesia tests and recorded at 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th minutes.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>:</em> Tadalafil showed anti-nociceptive effect when given alone at different doses (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>). However, tadalafil significantly decreased the analgesic effect of morphine (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>). In addition, tadalafil significantly increased the tolerance to morphine (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em> </strong>The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil have anti-nociceptive properties and it decreases analgesic effect of morphine, in addition improves tolerance development. These effects probably may occur via NO/cGMP pathway.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmet Sevki Taskiran Ercan Ozdemir Gokhan Arslan Yasar Tastemur Ahmet Kemal Filiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 64 73 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339492 Can gestational exercise have a positive effect on cognitive functions resulting from brain injury? A rat study http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/23 <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong> The effects of gestational exercise on potential pathological conditions is not known yet.&nbsp; Therefore, in the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of forced running exercise on LPS-induced brain damage in pregnant rats.</p> <p><strong><em>Method:</em></strong> Pregnant females in the experimental group were forced to exercise 30 min daily for five days a week. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced brain injury model was created by administering 500 µg/kg body weight of LPS on gestational days 18 and 19.&nbsp;&nbsp; To evaluate injury histopathologically, brain tissues were fixed at the postnatal day seven through transcardial perfusion (n=4 pups/group). When the remaining pups reached 30-day of age, Morris water maze test (MWM) was performed to assess memory and learning, open filed (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) for testing anxiety, and Porsolt test (PT) for evaluating depression. The groups were defined as brain injury group (BI, n=13)</p> <p>and exercise+brain injury group (E+BI, n=7).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The results obtained from MWM test indicated that animals found the platform in a shorter duration and distance at the day five compared to the day three. However, there was no significant difference between the groups. No significant difference was found in OP test regarding the distance traveled, time spent at the margins, movement at the center and the time spent as immobile. However, in the EPM test, the offspring at the BI group displayed higher mobility and increased number of entry to the open arms compared to the E+BI groups (p=0.01).&nbsp; There was no significant difference regarding mobility duration and total distance traveled in the PT test.</p> <p><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong></em> In the present study, we tested the impact of gestational exercise using the brain injury model. The results of the EPM test suggests that the gestational exercise can suppress the stress factors in the pregnant females with brain injury leading to the prevention of hyperactivity-induced negative learning behavior.</p> Mustafa Dilek Hayriye Orallar Gokce Bozat Nimet Kabakus Ayhan Cetinkaya Gamze Dilek Fatma Karakas Mustafa Erkocoglu Ali Can Onal Fahri Yilmaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 74 81 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339493 Obesity is associated with lower levels of Vitamin D http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/19 <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong>: In this study we aimed to compare the 25(OH) Vitamin-D level of obese patients and the serum 25(OH) Vitamin-D level of healthy individuals who have normal&nbsp; weight ;and also to evaluate the relation between 25(OH) Vitamin-D level and body mass index (BMI),waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat ratio.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>Among the patients who went into Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital Internal Medicine Polyclinic and the patients hospitalized at the Internal Medicine Clinic between the dates December 2012 - May 2013 and whose ages range between 18 and 70; total 105 individuals took part in the study. 62 individuals whose BMI is ≥30 formed the patient group, while 43 individuals whose BMI is between 18,5 and 25 formed control group. Vitamin-D level of the patient group and control group was measured. The data obtained was statistically analyzed.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>The weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat ratios of the patients in the case group were significantly higher than the ones in the control group (p&lt;0.05). The 25 (OH) Vitamin-D level of the patients in the case group was significantly less than the ones in control group (p=0.03). There was statistically significant negative correlation between 25 (OH) Vitamin-D value and weight (r=-0.26 p=0.01), waist circumference (r=-0.23 p=0.02), and BMI (r=-0.26 p=0.01).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>Physicians should consider in treatment of vitamin-D deficiency that, serum vitamin-D levels are higher in obese compared to lean subjects and correlated negatively with BMI, weight and waist circumference.</p> Edip Erkus Aysen Helvaci Mine Adas Muge Bilge ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 82 89 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339494 Sequential vitamin D and parathyroid hormone measurement in patients with septic shock: Could they be prognostic marker in septic shock? http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/24 <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong> Hypocalcemia is a common clinical problem in critically-ill patients and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate serum calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in surviving and non-surviving septic shock patients</p> <p><strong><em>Method:</em></strong> Patients with septic shock criteria and who were older than 18 years of age were included, whereas patients with diseases influencing calcium homeostasis were excluded. Demographic and laboratory parameters were recorded prospectively.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> 41 patients, 20 of which were male were included in the study. The median (min-max) age of study population was 67 (19-88) years. Frequency of hypocalcemia in the study population was 29.2% and 68.2% according to corrected calcium and ionized calcium, respectively. On the day septic shock was diagnosed (day 1), median vitamin D levels of survivors and non-survivors were 8.7 ng/ml (4.3-30.4) and 5.3 ng/ml (1.0-21.7), respectively (p=0.05). On the same day, median PTH levels of survivors and non-survivors were 94 ng/L (16.9-1746) and 49 ng/L (6.6-339), respectively (p=0.042). Although vitamin D levels were suppressed and PTH levels were elevated in non-survivors at day 5, this change was not statistically significant (p=0.19 and p=0.187).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Hypocalcemia is frequent in septic shock patients, whereas vitamin D levels were low and PTH levels were high in the diagnosis day. These results suggest that vitamin D is suppressed by septic shock at non-surviving patients during course of septic shock. Parathyroid hormone may be a marker for worse outcome in critically ill patients.</p> Hasan Hacı Yeter Oktay Halit Aktepe Arzu Topeli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 90 102 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339495 Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer thicknesses with optical coherence tomography in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/26 <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong> We aimed to compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness of B12 vitamin deficiency patients with healthy controls using optical coherence tomography (OCT).</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> Forty-six patients (27 females / 19 males) diagnosed with B12 vitamin deficiency and 46 healthy controls (26 females / 20 males) with similar age and sex were included in the study. RNFL thickness of global, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, superonasal, nasal and inferonasal sectors and GCL thickness and volume measurements of central, superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal sectors were performed using Spectralis-OCT device in all cases.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The mean age of the patient group was 42.17±15.34 years, while that of the control group was 44.21±12.34 years (p=0.528). Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were measured as 163,47±19,80 pg/ml in the patient group and 311,80±76,30 pg/ml in the control group (p &lt;0,01). There was no statistically significant difference between the global RNFL thicknesses of the two groups (p&gt; 0,05). However, statistically non-significant thinning was observed in the superotemporal and global RNFL thickness of the group with B12 vitamin deficiency (p values are 0,140 and 0,171, respectively). There was also no statistically significant difference between GCL thicknesses and volumes of the two groups (p&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> No significant reduction was observed in RNFL and GCL thicknesses of adult subjects with B12 vitamin deficiency compared with healthy controls.</p> Umit Dogan Sule Aydın Turkoglu Fatih Ulas Adem Soydan Abdulgani Kaymaz Tarik Eroglu Sumeyra Agca ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 103 109 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339496 Surgical treatment of inguinal hernia: Our experience http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/27 <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong><strong>:</strong> In present retrospective analysis, we aimed to evaluate the treatment results of subjects with inguinal hernia whom underwent surgical repair.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Surgical treatment of inguinal hernia for last 7 years have been retrospectively analyzed. Surgical procedures include anterior mesh, posterior mesh, Mc Vay, non-mesh repair, plug mesh.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> A total of 2320 patients underwent hernia surgery were included to the study. While, 2224 of the cases were elective procedures while 96 were operated in emergency conditions. Incarceration 78 of emergent cases were incarcerated and 18 were strangulated. Patients requiring emergency surgery were significantly older than the patients underwent elective hernia repair. Duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in emergent cases compared to elective cases. Need for intestinal resection was more common in emergent cases compared to elective surgery cases. Mc Vay and plug mesh procedures were more commonly used in emergent cases compared to elective surgery cases. Intestinal laceration and development of recurrences were more common in emergent surgery cases compared to elective surgery.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> Inguinal hernia patients should be scheduled for elective surgery without delay since need for emergent surgery may increase by time and emergent cases are associated with more complications and surgical morbidity.</p> Bahri Ozer Mustafa Sit Oguz Catal Songul Ozer Cihad Tatar Gamze Citlak Osman Anıl Savas Muzaffer Akinci ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 110 115 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339497 Patients’ misperception regarding the difficulty of lumbar puncture http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/25 <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong><em>:</em> Lumbar puncture (LP) is a crucial method of diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. Despite its importance, the patients' refusal of the procedure leads to difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. One of the main reasons for patients’ refusal may be that LP is perceived to be more difficult than it actually is. Our aim was to investigate whether the patients had prejudices against the difficulty of LP treatment.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> Sixty-seven patients aged between 20 and 80 years were included in to the study. Immediately prior to the procedure, each patient was asked to rate the difficulty level of the operation with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as 0 very easy to 10 very difficult. The cause of the LP, pre-diagnosis, education status, age and sex, presence of complications and the title of the physician performing the LP were recorded.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> A total of 20 patients refused the procedure (29.3%). &nbsp;Of the 47 patients, who had the procedure performed, 21 were female and 26 were male. Twenty-seven LP were performed by first-year assistant and 21 were performed by second-year assistant. Patients' mean VAS scores before the LP were 7.9 ± 2.0 and were 4.1 ± 2.9 after the LP. Post-procedure VAS scores were significantly lower than pre-procedural VAS scores (p &lt;0.001). The mean value of the VAS scores of the patients, whose LPs were performed by 1st year assistant, was 5.6±3.2 and the mean value of the VAS scores of the patients, whose LPs were performed by 2nd year assistant, was 3±2.2. There was a significant difference between two patient groups (p=0.004).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> The patient perception of the lumbar puncture is perceived to be worse than it actually is. Therefore, it is very important to provide sufficient information to the patients about the LP and to inform them about the necessity of the procedure.</p> Muhammed Nur Ogun Merve Onerli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 1 3 116 122 10.30714/10.30714/j-ebr.2018339498