EXPERIMENTAL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr <p>Experimental Biomedical Research is focused on priority novel research results covering a wide range of experimental and clinical fields in the biomedical sciencesx</p> Prof. Dr. Hayrettin Ozturk en-US EXPERIMENTAL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 2618-6454 <p>Experimental Biomedical Research journal is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> The prognostic and predictive value of osteopontin in colon adenocarcinoma http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/161 <p><em><strong>Aim:</strong></em> The identification of cellular pathways in colorectal tumor biology is essential for early diagnosis, treatment, and post-treatment follow-up. Osteopontin is an extracellular matrix protein that has regulatory physiological functions and roles in apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and tumor metastasis<em>. </em>In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic and predictive value of osteopontin in colon adenocarcinoma. Our study investigated whether osteopontin expression had any prognostic or predictive use in colon adenocarcinoma and also if there were any differences between adenocarcinoma and adenoma.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifty of these colonic specimens were adenocarcinoma, 16 were adenomatous polyps, and 10 were nontumoral colonic tissue that served as a control group. We used a two-tiered evaluation system that examined both the staining intensity and the percentage of staining.</p> <p><em><strong>Results:</strong> </em>The staining scores of tumors with vascular invasion were significantly higher than those of tumors without vascular invasion <em>(p=0.001)</em>. In addition, the tumoral tissues’ osteopontin staining scores were significantly higher than the score of polyps <em>(p=0.001)</em>.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </em>If future studies support our results, we suggest that osteopontin may be an important biomarker for predicting or detecting vascular invasion in tumors and could be useful in tumor-adenomatous polyp differentiation. Therefore, osteopontin can provide helpful information in the diagnosis and prognosis of colon adenocarcinoma.</p> Yasemin Akca Murat Alper ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 72 80 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267969 Effect of vitamin D level and polypharmacy on the risk of falls in the elderly http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/150 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the effects of polypharmacy and vitamin D levels on the risk of falls in the elderly.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The prospective study included 201 patients (F/M: 155/46) aged 65 years and older who presented with nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. The demographic and laboratory data of the patients, as well as the results of a single leg stance test (SLST), a timed up and go (TUG) test and levels of vitamin D were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The percentage of patients with polypharmacy is 15.9 percent and 29.4 percent used no medications. The SLST score was the lowest and the TUG test score was significantly higher in the polypharmacy group <em>(p&lt;0.05)</em>. Vitamin D levels were significantly higher in patients with normal SLST times than those with abnormal SLST times <em>(p&lt;0.05)</em>. The risk of falls was significantly higher among patients with a previous history of a fall <em>(p&lt;0.05)</em>. Polypharmacy and the female gender appeared as the most significant factors affecting the risk of falls <em>(p&lt;0.05)</em>, while vitamin D level was found to have no effect <em>(p&gt;0.05)</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Medical therapies for the treatment of diseases in the elderly should have a rational basis, as this may reduce falls, particularly in the elderly population, that can have serious consequences, and may even lead to death.</p> Gamze Dilek Yalkin Calik Kagan Ozkuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 81 88 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267970 Alcoholic extract of Tarantula cubensis (Theranekron®) induce autophagy on gastric cancer cells http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/162 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the effects of theranekron in respect of autophagy on gastric cancer that is the fifth leading cancer type worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Metods:</strong> In the present study, metastatic AGS and non-metastatic MKN-45 human gastric cell lines were used together with HEK-293 non-cancer cells as controls. Cytotoxic effect of theranekron besides appropriate treatment time was investigated through cell proliferation by using Cell Proliferation assay Kit (MTT) using different concentrations of the drug. The autophagic effect of the drug was determined using the LC3-GFP translocation assay and western blot analysis. All experiments were performed also using the ethanol since Tarantula cubensis spider was processed and diluted in 60% alcohol to generate as a drug.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> MTT assay results demonstrated that the half maximal inhibitory concentration of theranekron was ~100 μM, its effect was found to be significant at 6 hrs, and theranekron decreased the cell viability in all cell lines without specificity in respect to the increasing concentrations. Additionally, a significantly increased GFP accumulation was detected in the autophagosomes of the cells treated with theranekron compared to non-treated cells, indicating the presence of autophagy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings were confirmed by LC3-I to LC3-II conversion with the western blot analysis. The data of ethanol experiments; however, demonstrated that ethanol also induced a cytotoxic effect and autophagic cell death. Our results suggested that theranekron results in cell death and stimulate autophagy process, but it is not specific for cancer cells since it represented similar results on non-cancer control cells. Moreover, the effect of theranekron on cell death might mostly occur through alcohol in which it is extracted.</p> Vildan Betul Yenigun Ali Ahmed Azzawri Mustafa Said Acar Muhammed Burak Kaplan Vasfiye Betul Ucar Didem Tastekin Hasan Acar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 89 98 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267971 The effect of tuberositas tibia osteotomy on patellofemoral joint pressure: An experimental animal study http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/181 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To demonstrate the decrease in patellofemoral pressure with an anterior elevation of tuberositas tibia. Therefore, we have performed Maquet’s Technique to evaluate the patella pressure on femoral trochlea by biomechanically in an animal experiment model.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study includes total of 42 knees of 21 New Zealand rabbits. Animals were divided into two groups. The first group including 21 right knees was designated as the control group. In the second group including 21 left knees, anterior elevation of tuberositas tibia (Maquet’s technique) was performed. Pressure measuring film layer “prescala” (Fujifilm, Japan) was placed on the patellofemoral joint under anesthesia in both groups. Mean values of both average and maximal pressure measurements in two groups were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There is a statistically significant difference in between average pressure and maximum pressure in the right and left legs of the rabbits. Average pressure and maximal pressure at rabbit knees performed Maquet’s procedure were significantly lower than knees without Maquet’s procedure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Anterior elevation of tuberositas tibia is successful in reducing patellofemoral joint pressure which can be used in cases with patellofemoral pain syndrome non-responding to conservative treatment.</p> Sidar Ozturk Zafer Volkan Gokce Huseyin Bahadır Gokcen Hakki Sur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 99 106 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267972 Postoperative complications and its relationship with the severity of postoperative pain in patients undergoing thoracic surgery http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/168 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To investigate the complications that occur in our patients who underwent thoracic surgery, as well as the relationship between postoperative pain and complications.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Of the 117 patients who underwent surgery between January 2018 and December 2018, there were 99 patients with pain and the other parameters whose data’s were complete. Medical records of the patients were investigated in terms of age, gender, smoking status and frequency, diagnosis, treatment, length of stay in the hospital, postoperative complications and visual analog scale (VAS). The postoperative complications and VAS values were compared statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the patients was 50.52±18.46 years, 26 (26.3%) patients were female and 73 (73.7%) were male. The average length of stay in hospital was 4.08±3.06 days and average pain severity was 3.92±2.07. The most common diagnosis in our cases was lung cancer, and the most common complication was prolonged air leakage. There was a significant relationship between the severity of pain and the presence of postoperative complications in our patients <em>(p=0.001)</em>. However, the correlation relationship was found to be low <em>(r=0.322).</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of our study revealed that optimal postoperative pain control is an important factor for preventing postoperative complications.</p> Osman Yaksi Alp Ozel Elif Yaksi Ali Kilicgun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 107 112 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267973 Alginate encapsulation induce colony formation with umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/182 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The umbilical cord (UC) is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation. Since the MSCs isolated from here have high self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential, production through biofabrication is essential for clinical treatments. For the cells to be stored for a long time and presented ready for use, encapsulation is required. In this study, UC-MSC cells were encapsulated with alginate using three different methods: alginate drop, alginate coating, and alginate sphere.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The cell viability, live/dead cell ratio, and colony formation capacities of the encapsulated cells were examined for 14 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the study, it was found that the most effective method was the alginate sphere form and that the structure of the cells should be preserved by injecting them into biomaterials in encapsulation. Colony formation potential was found to be high in biomaterials with alginate spheres.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As a result, the preservation of UC-MSC cells with alginate sphere encapsulation via biofabrication and their clinical use availability may be beneficial for treating of many diseases.</p> Erkan Gumus Burcin Irem Abas Evrim Cevik Bilge Kocabiyik Melike Cenik Ozge Cevik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 113 121 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267974 Inclination and Alsberg angle changes in hip degenerative arthritis http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/184 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To compare the inclination and Alsberg angles of both hips in patients with unilateral coxarthrosis and healthy population.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>89 patients who underwent total hip replacement due to end-stage unilateral idiopathic coxarthrosis between 2016 and 2019 in Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Orthopedics and Traumatology Department and had preoperative pelvic anteroposterior radiographs were included in the study. A total of 87 patients with pelvic radiographs taken due to low back pain or minor trauma were included in the study as control group. Patients with bilateral end-stage coxarthrosis, any lower extremity fractures, secondary coxarthrosis caused by any reasons like Perthes disease, trauma, avascular necrosis, hematologic disease etc. and unsuitable radiographs were excluded from the study. Two researchers took the measurements separately and the averages were considered and the results were analyzed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Statistically significant differences were detected between the right side and the left side in terms of both Alsberg and hip inclination values in individuals of healthy control group. In patients with unilateral osteoarthritis, no significant differences were detected between right and left sides in terms of hip inclination values. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the right and left sides in terms of Alsberg values in patients with unilateral osteoarthritis. The Alsberg angle was found to be higher at statistically significant levels in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis, in both the osteoarthritis side and the contralateral hip, compared to the values in healthy individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> When compared with healthy individuals, it was concluded that the Alsberg and inclination angles changed with the development of unilateral coxarthrosis. While significant differences were detected between the sides for Alsberg and inclination angle in healthy individuals, this difference between the sides was not observed in the coxarthrosis groups. With the development of unilateral coxarthrosis, it was concluded that the asymmetry between the right and left sides of healthy individuals disappeared and a more symmetrical structure emerged in terms of Alsberg and hip inclination angles.</p> Yasin Emre Kaya Seda Sertel Meyvaci ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 122 130 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267975 Investigation of the effect of quercetin in an experimental oxygen-induced retinopathy model http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/188 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Investigation of the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) quercetin and bevacizumab on oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In the study, 28 newborn rats were used. The OIR model was performed with the 50/10% oxygen technique. The study consisted of four groups as a control group (Group I) and OIR groups (Group II, III, and IV). IP injection applied to all groups on the postnatal day (PND) 14. Groups I and II were performed 0.9% NaCl, Group III was performed IP bevacizumab, and Group IV was performed IP quercetin. All animals were sacrificed on PND 18.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the data obtained from immunohistochemical and histopathological examinations, the number of vascular endothelial cell (VEC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly reduced in Group III and IV compared to Group II. VECs levels were 0±0, 32.69±5.77, 2.92±0.63, and 3.64±0.36 in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively <em>(p&lt;0.001)</em>. Likewise, VEGF values were 0.15±0.01, 7.57±1.80, 2.45±0.45, and 2.46±0.49, respectively <em>(p&lt;0.001)</em>. As well as TNF-α values were 0.06±0.01, 8.22±2.24, 2.32±0.32, and 2.29±0.26 in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively <em>(p&lt;0.001)</em>. There was no significant difference between Group III and Group IV in terms of VEC, VEGF and TNF-α values <em>(range of p values was 0.96-1.00)</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of the present study showed that quercetin administration significantly reduced the VEC number and suppressed VEGF and TNF-α. Quercetin's anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis effect was found to be similar to bevacizumab.</p> Abdulgani Kaymaz Fatih Ulas Sevilay Erimsah Cansu Kara Oztabag ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 131 140 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267976 Evaluation of electrocardiographic ventricular repolarization parameters in stable coronary artery disease http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/195 <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To examine the relationship between the SYNTAX score (SS) and cardiac repolarization parameters such as cQTd and Tp-e values, and Tp-e/QT, Tp-e/JT, Tp-e/QTc, and Tp-e/JTc ratios in patients who have stable angina pectoris.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: 12-lead resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) and SS of 160 patients (51 female and 109 male) undergoing coronary angiography with the pre-diagnosis of stable angina pectoris were evaluated. Patients with a SS below 22 were classified as Group 1 (low-SYNTAX), and those above 22 (high-SYNTAX) as Group 2. Forty-four patients with normal coronary angiography were included in Group 3.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean age of the patients was 62.4±9.1 years. The heart rate, QRS, QT, cQT and JT durations between the groups were similar. In addition, relatively recent ventricular repolarization indices such as Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT, Tp-e/JT, Tp-e/QTc, and Tp-e/JTc ratios were also not substantially different between groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Several surface ECG predictors of ventricular arrhythmias, including QTd, JT and Tp-e intervals and their ratios to QT and JT, are not significantly correlated with SYNTAX score-assessed CAD severity in patients with stable angina pectoris.</p> Mehmet Cosgun Emrah Erdal Yilmaz Gunes Isa Sincer Asli Kurtar Mansiroglu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 141 147 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267977 Platelet to lymphocyte ratio in differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/197 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Differentiation of thyroid nodules, either as benign or malignant, is a real diagnostic challenge. Inflammation has an important role in development of the malignancy. Therefore, inflammatory markers are associated with malignant thyroid nodules. Platelet /lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is also one of the novel inflammatory indices derived from hemogram tests. We hypothesized whether PLR was associated with malignant thyroid nodules. For this purpose, we compared PLR levels of the patients with benign thyroid nodules to the PLR of the subjects with malignant nodules.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The subjects who visited outpatient internal medicine clinics of our institution with a diagnosis of thyroid nodule were enrolled to the present retrospective study. According to the examination of the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimen of the nodules, patients grouped into benign or malignant nodule groups. PLR of groups were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Median PLR values of the benign and malignant thyroid nodule groups were 106 (48-432) % and 119 (48-365) %, respectively <em>(p=0.001)</em>. PLR value higher than 106% has 69% sensitivity and 51% specificity in detecting malignant nodules <em>(AUC: 0.59, p=0.001, 95% CI: 0.54-0.65)</em>. PLR was positively correlated with TSH level <em>(r=0.10, p=0.34)</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We suggest that elevated PLR could be an additional tool to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones in supportive of sonography, scintigraphy and cytology.</p> Burçin Meryem Atak Gizem Bakir Kahveci Satilmis Bilgin Ozge Kurtkulagi Mehmet Ali Kosekli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 148 153 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267978 An overview of vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies as a risk factors in children with febrile seizure etiology http://experimentalbiomedicalresearch.com/ojs/index.php/ebr/article/view/202 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>&nbsp;To determine serum iron, ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency and associated hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and red cell distribution width (RDW) values in children undergoing febrile seizure, and thus to reveal their potential etiological role.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The serum iron, folate, vitamin B12, and ferritin, and Hb, Hct, MCV, and RDW values of 98 patients undergoing FS and presenting to the pediatric neurology department and of 64 control patients were retrieved retrospectively and compared. Patient group data were also compared within the group.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Serum iron, ferritin, and vitamin B12 values were significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group. Intragroup comparison revealed higher RDW values in patients with more than three FS and in those with complicated seizures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first study to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12, folate, and iron deficiency and FS. It should be remembered that deficiencies in these micronutrients, which are not routinely investigated in patients presenting with FS, may play a role in the etiology, and that the frequency can decrease with treatment. It should also not be forgotten that FS patients with high RDW values may be at risk of frequent seizure recurrence.</p> Sevim Turay Fatma Hanci Sukriye Ozde ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 4 2 154 163 10.30714/j-ebr.2021267979